Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
Pharmacologic class: Third-generation cephalosporin
Therapeutic class: Anti-infective
Pregnancy risk category B
Interferes with bacterial cell-wall synthesis and division by binding to cell wall, causing cell to die. Active against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, with expanded activity against gram-negative bacteria. Exhibits minimal immunosuppressant activity.
Powder for injection乐动体育开户: 500 mg, 1 g, 2 g, 6 g
Premixed containers: 1 g/50 ml, 2 g/50 ml
Indications and dosages
➣ Skin infections; bone and joint infections; urinary tract and gynecologic infections, including gonorrhea; respiratory tract infections; intraabdominal infections; septicemia
Adults and children ages 12 and older: For most infections, 500 mg to 2 g I.V. or I.M. q 8 to 12 hours. For pneumonia and skin infections, 0.5 to 1 g I.V. or I.M. q 8 to 12 hours. For bone and joint infections, 2 g I.V. or I.M. q 12 hours. For severe and life-threatening infections, 2 g I.V. q 8 hours. For complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs), 500 mg q 8 to 12 hours. For uncomplicated UTIs, 250 mg I.M. or I.V. q 12 hours.
Children ages 1 month to 12 years: 30 to 50 mg/kg I.V. q 8 hours
Neonates younger than 4 weeks:乐动体育开户 30 mg/kg I.V. q 12 hours
乐动体育开户• Renal impairment
乐动体育开户• Febrile neutropenia
• Prophylaxis of perinatal infections
• Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins or penicillins
Use cautiously in:
• renal impairment, hepatic disease, biliary obstruction, phenylketonuria
• history of GI disease
• elderly patients
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients
• Obtain specimens for culture and sensitivity testing as necessary before starting therapy.
• Reconstitute powder for injection with sterile water, following manufacturer's directions for amount of diluent to use.
乐动体育开户• For I.V. injection, dilute in sterile water as directed, and give single dose over 3 to 5 minutes. Inject into large vein; rotate injection sites.
乐动体育开户• For intermittent I.V. infusion, dilute further with 100 ml of sterile water or another compatible fluid, such as normal saline solution or dextrose 5% in water. Infuse over 30 minutes.
• Don't dilute with sodium bicarbonate.
• For I.M. injection, reconstitute with sterile water, bacteriostatic water, or 0.5% or 1% lidocaine hydrochloride.
• When giving I.M., inject deep into large muscle mass.
CNS: headache, confusion, hemiparesis, lethargy, paresthesia, syncope, asterixis, neuromuscular excitability (with increased drug blood levels in renally impaired patients), seizures, encephalopathy
CV: hypotension, palpitations, chest pain, vasodilation
EENT: hearing loss
GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, oral candidiasis, pseudomembranous colitis
GU: vaginal candidiasis, nephrotoxicity
Hematologic: lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, bleeding tendency, hemolytic anemia, hypoprothrombinemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, bone marrow depression
Hepatic: hepatic failure, hepatomegaly
Skin: urticaria, maculopapular or erythematous rash
Other: chills, fever, superinfection, I.M. site pain, anaphylaxis, serum sickness
Drug-drug. Aminoglycosides, loop diuretics: increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Chloramphenicol: antagonism of ceftazidime's effects
Probenecid乐动体育开户: decreased excretion and increased blood level of ceftazidime
Drug-diagnostic tests. Alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, eosinophils, gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase: increased levels
Hemoglobin, platelets, white blood cells: decreased values
Coombs' test, urinary 17-ketosteroids, nonenzyme-based urine glucose tests (such as Clinitest): false-positive results
Drug-herbs. Angelica, anise, arnica, asafetida, bogbean, boldo, celery, chamomile, clove, danshen, fenugreek, feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, horse chestnut, horseradish, licorice, meadowsweet, onion, papain, passionflower, poplar, prickly ash, quassia, red clover, turmeric, wild carrot, wild lettuce, willow: increased risk of bleeding
Monitor for extreme confusion, tonic-clonic seizures, and mild hemiparesis when giving high doses.
• Assess CBC and kidney and liver function test results.
乐动体育开户• Monitor for signs and symptoms of superinfection and other serious adverse reactions.
• Be aware that cross-sensitivity to penicillins may occur.
乐动体育开户• Instruct patient to report reduced urine output, persistent diarrhea, bruising, and bleeding.
乐动体育开户• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, and herbs mentioned above.